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Savannah Harbor Expansion Project

 

FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT FOR

            SAVANNAH HARBOR EXPANSION PROJECT

CHATHAM COUNTY, GEORGIA AND JASPER COUNTY, SOUTH CAROLINA

           

Table of Contents
Items Page No.

CHANGES TO FINAL REPORTS (JULY 2012) 

ABSTRACT 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

(as it appears in the printed version of the EIS)

1.00 Summary 1-1
  1.01

1.02

1.03

1.04

1.05

1.06

1.07
Background and Purpose

Areas of Concern and Issues

Major Conclusions and Findings

Relationship of the Proposed Action of Environmental, Legal, Regulatory and Policy Requirements

Previous Corps of Engineers Reports Related to Savannah Harbor

Tiering

Comparison of Draft and Final Reports
1-3

1-4

1-4

1-8

1-8

1-13

1-14
2.00 Purpose and need for action 2-1
  2.01

2.02

2.03

2.04

2.05

2.06
Project Area

Purpose and Need

Public Concerns

Study Authority

Planning Process

Planning Objectives
2-1

2-1

2-3

2-4

2-5

2-5
3.00 Alternatives 3-1
  3.01 Alternative Plans 3-5
    3.01.1

3.01.2

3.01.3

3.01.4

3.01.5

3.01.6
No Action Alternative (without Project Condition)

44 Foot Alternative (2 Feet Deeper)

45 Foot Alternative (3 Feet Deeper)

46 Foot Alternative (4 Feet Deeper)

47 Foot Alternative (5 Feet Deeper)

48 Foot Alternative (6 Feet Deeper)
3-5

3-15

3-16

3-16

3-17

3-17
  3.02

3.03

3.04

3.05

3.06

3.07

3.08

3.09

3.10

3.11

3.12
Plans Considered in Detail

Comparative Impacts of Alternatives

Rationale for Plan Selection

Selected Plan

Initial Dredging and Sediment Placement Methods

Alternative Disposal Methods or Beneficial Use of Dredge Sediments

Dredging Quantities for Construction fo Selected Plan

Maintenance Dredging Requirements

50-Year Maintenance Plan and Periodic Review

Future Conditions Without the Project

Relationship of Proposed Action to Other Federal Projects
3-18

3-18

3-19

3-22

3-23

3-23

3-29

3-30

3-31

3-31

3-32
4.00 Affected Environment 4-1
  4.01 Geology and Sediments 4-3
    4.01.1

4.01.2

Geology

Sediments

4-3

4-3

  4.02 Water Resources 4-10
    4.02.1

4.02.2

Groundwater

Surface Water

4-10

4-12

  4.03 Air Quality



4-19
  4.04 Marine and Estuarine Resources 4-20
    4.04.1

4.04.2

4.04.3

4.04.4

4.10.5

Fish and Shellfish Resources

Project Studies on Estuarine Dependent Fish

Representative Fish Species in the Savannah River Estuary

Plankton Community Characterization

IBenthic Community Characterization
4-20

4-26

4-28

4-38

4-38

  4.05 Essential Fish Habitat 4-38
  4.06 Invasive Species 4-43
    4.06.1

4.06.2

4.06.3

Locally Ocurring Invasive Species

National Invasive Species Act (NISA)

International Regulation of Invasive Species

4-44

4-44

4-47

  4.07 Terrestrial Resources 4-48
    4.07.1

4.07.2

4.07.3

4.07.4

4.07.5

Savannah National Wildlife Refuge

Tybee National Wildlife Refuge

Turtle Island Wildlife Management Area (WMA)

Confined Sediment Placement/Disposal Facilities (CDFs)

Shoreline Erosion

4-48

4-50

4-50

4-50

4-62



  4.08 Wetlands and Floodplains 4-63
    4.08.1

4.08.2

Wetlands

Floodplains

4-63

4-63

  4.09 Threatened and Endangered Species 4-67
  4.10 Cultural Resources 4-73
    4.10.1

4.10.2

4.10.3

4.10.4

Area of Potential Effects

Previously Disturbed Areas within the Area of Potential Effect

Management of Cultural Resources

Status of Cultural Resources Investigations
4-73

4-74

4-75

4-75

  4.11

4.12

Aesthetics and Recreational

Recreational and Commercial Fishing



4-80

4-81
  4.13 Socioeconomic Resources 4-83
    4.10.1

4.10.2

4.10.3

Land Use

Population

Income and Employment

4-83

4-83

4-85



5.00 Environmental Consequences of the Proposed Action 5-1
  5.01 Wetlands 5-1
    5.01.1

5.01.2
Impacts from Excavation of Wetlands

Indirect Impacts to Wetlands
5-1

5-9
  5.02 Water Quality 5-42
    5.02.1

5.02.2

5.02.3

5.02.4

5.02.5

5.02.6

5.02.7

5.02.8

5.02.9

5.02.10

5.02.11

5.02.12

5.02.13

5.02.14

5.02.15
Dissolved Oxygen

Mitigation Impacts to Dissolved Oxygen

Chloride Concentrations - Abercorn Creek

Recent Data Collection

Updated Modeling Methodology

Technical Review

Analysis of Daily Average and Maximum Chloride Concentrations

Analysis of Daily Chloride Durations

Analysis of Hourly Chloride Concentrations and Durations

Drinking Water Concerns-Chloride Levels

Corrosion Concerns

Lead Corrosion

Disinfection Byproduct Formation

Industrical Water Supply Concerns

Mitigation Techniques of Chloride Concentrations
5-42

5-53

5-58

5-60

5-63

5-63

5-63

5-64

5-66

5-67

5-68

5-68

5-69

5-70

5-71

  5.03 Fisheries 5-82
    5.03.1

5.03.2
Impacts to Fishery Resources

Mitigation for Impacts to Fisheries
5-82

5-114
  5.04 Sediment Quality 5-112
    5.04.1

5.04.2
Overview

Sediment Quality Evaluation
5-112

5-123
  5.05 Groundwater 5-128
    5.05.1

5.05.2
Paleochannels

Fractures within Miocene Confining Unit
5-130

5-131
  50.6 Air Quality 5-132
    5.06.1

Air Quality Standards

5-136

  5.07 Marine and Estuarine Resources 5-138
    5.07.1

5.07.2
Direct Dredging Impacts

Sediment Placement Impacts
5-138

5-143
  5.08 Terrestrial Resources 5-146
    5.08.1

5.08.2

5.08.3

5.08.4
Savannah National Wildlife Refuge

Tybee National Wildlife Refuge

Turtle Island Wildlife Management Area

Confined Disposal Facilities

5-146

5-146

5-147

5-147
  5.09

5.10



Existing Shorelines Adjacent to Federal Navigation Areas

Floodplains



5-149

5-151

  5.11 Threatened and Endangered Species 5-153
    5.11.1

5.11.2
Paleochannels

Fractures within Miocene Confining Unit
5-153

5-153
  5.12 Cultural Resources 5-159
    5.12.1



5.12.2

5.12.3

5.12.4

5.12.5

5.12.6

5.12.7

5.12.8

5.12.9
Alternative Considered During Project Design in order to Reduce the Area of Potential Effect

Cultural Resources Investigations for Specific Sites

Surveys to be Performed

Consultation with Native American Tribes

Consultation with Georgia and South Carolina Historic Preservation Offices

Consultation with the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation

Other Consulting Parties

Public Involvement

Summary

5-160



5-160

5-169

5-171

5-171

5-171

5-171

5-172

5-172
  5.13

5.14

5.15

5.16

5.17

5.18



Coastal Zone Management Consistency

Essential Fish Habitat

Cumulative Impacts of the Proposed Action

Aesthetics and Recreational

Recreational and Commercial Fishing

Socioeconomic Resources

5-172

5-175

5-175

5-184

5-184

5-184

  5.19 Protection of Children and Environmental Justice 5-185
    5.19.1

5.19.2

5.19.3

5.19.4

5.19.5

5.19.6

5.19.7

5.19.8

Overview

Demographics of Chatham County and Jasper County

Demographics Analysis in the Project Area

Landside Transportation of Cargo

Terminal Infrastructure

Terminal Operations

Consideration of Other Terminal Locations

Summary of Project Effects on Environmental Justice Populations and Children

5-185

5-186

5-191

5-194

5-194

5-196

5-197

5-198

  5.20 Other Items/Factors of Concern 5-199
    5.20.1

5.20.2



5.20.3

5.20.4

5.20.5

5.20.6

5.20.7



Noise

Man-made and Natural Resources, Community Cohesion, and the Availability of Public Facilities and Services

Climate Change

Displacement of People, Businesses, and Farms

Community and Regional Growth

Public Safety

Invasive Species



5-199

5-203



5-203

5-204

5-204

5-204

5-205



  5.21

5.22

5.23

5.24





Mitigation Planning

Utility Crossings, Structures, and Aids to Navigation

Coastal Barrier Resources Act

Hazardous and Toxic Wastes



5-205

5-206

5-206

5-207
  5.25 Summary of Envirnomental Consequences 5-208
    5.25.1

5.25.2

5.25.3



5.25.4





5.25.5

5.25.6



5.25.7

5.25.8

5.25.9
Direct Adverse Impacts

Indirect Adverse Impacts

The Relationship Between Short-Term Uses of Man's Environment and the Maintenance and Enhancement of Long-Term Productivity

Possible Conflicts Between the Proposed Action and the Objectives of Federal, Regional, State and Local Land Use Plans, Policies and Controls for the Area Concerned

Irreversible and Irretrievable Commitment of Resources

Energy Requirements and Conservation Potential of Various Alternatives and Mitigation Measures

Natural or Depletable Resource Requirements and Conservaton Potential

Urban Quality, Historic and Cultural Resources, and the Design of the Built Environment

Selected Means to Mitigate Adverse Environmental Impacts



5-208

5-208



5-209





5-210

5-211



5-211

5-212

5-212

5-213
  5.26 Construction Sequencing 5-213
6.00 Compliance with Environmental Requirements 6-1
  6.01 National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) 6-1
  6.02 Clean Water Act (CWA) 6-1
    6.02.1

6.02.2

6.02.3
Water Quality Certification

Wetlands

Section 404(b)(1) Guidelines



6-1

6-4

6-4
  6.03

6.04

6.05

6.06

6.07

6.08

6.09

6.10

6.11

6.12

6.13

6.14

6.15

6.16



6.17

6.18



Section 103 of the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act of 1972

Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act

Anadromous Fish Conservation Act

Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act

Endangered Species Act (ESA)

Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA)

Clean Air Act (CAA)

Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)

Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA)

Executive Order 11988, Floodplain Management

Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands

Executive Order 113112, Invasive Species

Executive Order 11593, Protection and Enhancement of the Cultural Environment

Executive Order 12898, Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low Income Populations

Executive Order 13045, Protection of Children from Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks

Migratory Bird Treaty Act, Executive Order 13186, Responsibilities of Federal Agencies to Protect Migratory Birds
6-4

6-5

6-5

6-6

6-6

6-6

6-6

6-6

6-6

6-7

6-7

6-7

6-7



6-8

6-8



6-8



  6.19 Federal Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) 6-9
    6.19.1

6.19.2

State of Georgia Coastal Zone Management Program

State of South Carolina Coastal Zone Management Program





6-9

6-10

  6.20

6-21
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA or Superfund)
6-11

6-11



7.00 Public Involvement, Review and Coordination 7-1
  7.01

Public Involvement and Review 7-1
    7.01.1

Summary of Comments Received on Draft EIS and GRR





7-3
  7.02 Required Coordination 7-7

8.0 Risk and Uncertainty Analysis 8-1
9.0 References 9-1
         
LIST OF APPENDICES
Appendix A: Comments Received from Review of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement  
Appendix B: 

           Biological Assessments for Threatened and Endangered Species

           Addendum
 
Appendix C: Mitigation Planning  
Appendix D: Monitoring Plan and Adaptive Management Program  
Appendix E:

          US Fish and Wildlife Draft Coordination Act Report     

          USACE Response
 
Appendix F: Cultural Resources  
Appendix G: Programmatic Agreement for Cultural Resources  
Appendix H: Section 404(b)(1) Evaluation  
Appendix I: Federal Consistency Determination - Georgia Coastal Management Program  
Appendix J: Federal Consistency Determination - South Carolina Coastal Management Program  
Appendix K: Air Emission Inventory  
Appendix L: Cumulative Impact Analysis  
Appendix M: Sediment Quality Evaluation  
Appendix N:

           Record of Interagency Coordination

           Compiled SCDHEC Correspondence

 
Appendix O: Formulation of Alternatives  
Appendix P: Fishery Habitat Maps  
Appendix Q: Risk and Uncertainty in Environmental Evaluation and Approach  
Appendix R: Section 103 Evaluation  
Appendix S:

          Essential Fish Habitat Evaluation 

          Conservation Recommendations

          Responses to Conservation Recommendations
 
Appendix T: Savannah National Wildlife Refuge Compatibility Determination  
Appendix U: Independent Technical Review of Use of Regulatory Standard Operating Procedures  
Appendix V: List of Preparers  
Appendix W: Index  
Appendix X: 1999 Report of the Chief of Engineers and Record of Decision  
Appendix Y: Stakeholders Evaluation Group Summary Report  
Appendix Z: Environmental Clearances